Books containing pictograms of the disk.
The rosette or flower. (A) section 1, sign 1.
It is used on Anatolian and Hittite seals of the kings of the middle kingdom and the early
Beran, Thomas. Die hethitische Glyptik von Bogazköy, (Berlin 1967), tabel IV, nr 146a,
147; tabel VI, nr 160 and other numbers.
The head with a kind of cockscomb. (A) section 3, sign 7.
The Codex Mendoza, (Aztecs), shows several men with such a hair-dress.
The fork. (A) section 5, sign 2.
Contenau, Georges. La glyptique syro-hittite, ( Paris 1922), planche IV, fig. 11.
This fork has a slightly different form.
The "saucer" with handle. (A) section 8, sign 2.
Boehmer, Rainer Michael. Die Entwicklung der Glyptik während der Akkad-Zeit,
(Berlin l965), fig. 435, text p. 76.
Contenau, op. cit., fig. 48, 341, 355, shows us all kinds of "saucers" with a hole or handle.
The lightning-flower.(A) section 19, sign 2.
Bossert, Helmuth Theodor. Ein hethitisches Königssiegel, (Berlin 1944), p. 212-213.
En Beran. op.cit., a similar flower is shown in tabel III, nr. 130; tabel II, nr. 117;
tabel XII, nr.248.
The eagle. (A) section 10, sign 2.
Beran, op. cit., tabel I, nr. 41, text p. 21. This bird has one ring under his right wing.
The tree (branch). (A) section 2, sign 2.
Beran op. cit., tabel I, nr 51, text p. 22. The branch lies above a deer. Considering the form and
thickness it cannot be an arrow or a spear. With roots it is probably a tree.
Codex Mendoza. In the pictographic script of the Aztecs a similar picture is a club used
as a weapon.
The fire-plant. (A) section 3, sign 3.
Bossert, op. cit., p. 173. On the bronze under-carriage of a kettle there is a relief that
shows us some people carrying a slice of metal. In front of them is a plant, probably
this plant symbolizes fire, because they needed it to forge or found metal. There
too it is used in combination with a woman.
More convincing is the picture of fire used by the Aztecs on their calendar, 4 flames
around a stick. See the Codex Mendoza.
Clay. (A) section 21, sign 3.
Bossert, op. cit., p. 171, calls this picture a metal bar.
The shield with 7 knobs. (A) section 3, sign 6.
Codex Mendoza. In this codex the shield has a literal meaning.
Chapouthier, F.. Mallia, écritures minoennes, (Paris 1930), p. 55 and 56. In
inscriptions in linear script, that has to be read from the left to the right, you see a shield
followed by an idol. Here the shield is used in the figurative sense. So, on the disk the head
after the shield must be that of a priest. The inscription also produces another prove of the
direction in which we have to read the disk, viz. from the right to the left.
The object on the prow of the boat. (A) section 12, sign 4.
This is the object the god Shamash (the sun-god) holds in his hand on an old seal from the
Driver, Godfrey Rolles. Semitic writing from pictograph to alphabet, (London 1976), pag 63.
Water, probably the sea.
(A) section 26, sign 3.
It is always used together with a kind of triangle with a globule on top, in my opinion the
picture for land.
Evans, Arthur John. Scripta Minoa, (Oxford 1909-1952). p. 280, nr. 45.
The two idols. (A) section
3, sign 3 and 4, section 28, sign 1.
Chapouthier, op. cit., p. 59 - 60.
The cages or stables in vertical
position. (A) section 9, sign 4.
Amiet, Pierre. La glyptique mésopotamienne archaique, (Paris 1958), nr. 214, 257 and 395.
The structure. (A) section
30, sign 3.
Rectangular houses with a dome-shaped roof are shown in:
Amiet, P. La glyptique mésopotamienne archaique, nr 267.
Amiet, P. Glyptique Susienne, (Paris 1972), part 2, nr.660, 930 and 2316A.
The fish. (A) section 14,
Contenau, op. cit., the fishes are standing upright in fig. 28 and 173; they are upside down
in fig. 13 and 39.
The lines underneath some
Laroche, E. Hiëroglyphes hittites, (l960), p. 204 and 205.
Compare also the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The seat. Section 36 (B 5),
Beran, op. cit., tabel I, nr. 83.
Contenau, op. cit., planche XVII, fig.127.
Bossert, op. cit., p. 96, fig. 12, text p. 97.
The knife-like arrow. Section
48 (B 17), sign 3.
Amiet, P. Glyptique Susienne, (op. cit.), part 2, nr. 600 and 695.
Flint. Section 49 (B 18), sign 2.
Codex Mendoza. The Aztecs used this picture for flint on their calendar. They made
knifes of flint. With the point downwards it is a knife of flint.
See the Codex de Zempoala. Review by J. Galarza, (Paris 1977), p. 175, tabl. 87.
Some important notes.
1. If an object is put upside down, (the idols, the cow's leg as a "pars pro toto", the knife
of flint), it means that it is not present, although one could expect it to be present.
2. If an object is put in the wrong direction, as the pickaxe is, because the man, approaching,
cannot catch the helve, it indicates that not the object itself is meant, but the result
of its use. In section 54 (B 23) precedes the pictogram for land, so there is a cleft
in the land.
3. The pictogram of just a head refers to the head of a civil or religious society.
If, in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, a head (or a person) is lying face down, it means that
person lost his power.
Clay is very easy to work on. Irregular lines have been made by a child or by a
The pictograms in their context.